View and Layout

Matrix and tensor objects, which are common in scientific computing applications, are naturally expressed as multi-dimensional arrays. However, for efficiency in C and C++, they are usually allocated as one-dimensional arrays. For example, a matrix \(A\) of dimension \(N_r \times N_c\) is typically allocated as:

double* A = new double [N_r * N_c];

Using a one-dimensional array makes it necessary to convert two-dimensional indices (rows and columns of a matrix) to a one-dimensional pointer offset to access the corresponding array memory location. One could use a macro such as:

#define A(r, c) A[c + N_c * r]

to access a matrix entry in row r and column c. However, this solution has limitations; e.g., additional macro definitions may be needed when adopting a different matrix data layout or when using other matrices. To facilitate multi-dimensional indexing and different indexing layouts, RAJA provides RAJA::View and RAJA::Layout classes.

RAJA Views

A RAJA::View object wraps a pointer and enables indexing into the data referenced via the pointer based on a RAJA::Layout object. We can create a RAJA::View for a matrix with dimensions \(N_r \times N_c\) using a RAJA View and a default RAJA two-dimensional Layout as follows:

double* A = new double [N_r * N_c];

const int DIM = 2;
RAJA::View<double, RAJA::Layout<DIM> > Aview(A, N_r, N_c);

The RAJA::View constructor takes a pointer to the matrix data and the extent of each matrix dimension as arguments. The template parameters to the RAJA::View type define the pointer type and the Layout type; here, the Layout just defines the number of index dimensions. Using the resulting view object, one may access matrix entries in a row-major fashion (the default RAJA layout) through the view parenthesis operator:

// r - row index of a matrix
// c - column index of a matrix
// equivalent to indexing as A[c + r * N_c]
Aview(r, c) = ...;

A RAJA::View can support any number of index dimensions:

const int DIM = n+1;
RAJA::View< double, RAJA::Layout<DIM> > Aview(A, N0, ..., Nn);

By default, entries corresponding to the right-most index are contiguous in memory; i.e., unit-stride access. Each other index is offset by the product of the extents of the dimensions to its right. For example, the loop:

// iterate over index n and hold all other indices constant
for (int in = 0; in < Nn; ++in) {
  Aview(i0, i1, ..., in) = ...
}

accesses array entries with unit stride. The loop:

// iterate over index j and hold all other indices constant
for (int j = 0; j < Nj; ++j) {
  Aview(i0, i1, ..., j, ..., iN) = ...
}

access array entries with stride N n * N (n-1) * … * N (j+1).

MultiView

A RAJA::MultiView object wraps an array-of-pointers, or a pointer-to-pointers, whereas a RAJA::View wraps a single pointer or array. This allows a single RAJA::Layout to be applied to multiple arrays internal to the MultiView, allowing multiple arrays to share indexing arithmetic when their access patterns are the same.

The instantiation of a MultiView works exactly like a standard View, except that it takes an array-of-pointers. In the following example, a MultiView applies a 1-D layout of length 4 to 2 internal arrays in myarr.

  // Arrays of the same size, which will become internal to the MultiView.
  int a1[4] = {5,6,7,8};
  int a2[4] = {9,10,11,12};

  // Array-of-pointers which will be passed into MultiView.
  int * myarr[2];
  myarr[0] = a1;
  myarr[1] = a2;

  // This MultiView applies a 1-D layout of length 4 to each internal array in myarr.
  RAJA::MultiView< int, RAJA::Layout<1> > MView(myarr, 4);

The default MultiView accesses internal arrays via the 0th position of the MultiView.

  t1 = MView( 0, 3 ); // accesses the 4th index of the 0th internal array a1, returns value of 8
  t2 = MView( 1, 2 ); // accesses 3rd index of the 1st internal array a2, returns value of 11

The index into the array-of-pointers can be moved to different indices of the MultiView () access operator, rather than the default 0th position. By passing a third template parameter to the MultiView constructor, the internal array index and the integer indicating which array to access can be reversed.

  // MultiView with array-of-pointers index in 1st position.
  RAJA::MultiView< int, RAJA::Layout<1>, 1 > MView1(myarr, 4);

  t3 = MView1( 3, 0 ); // accesses the 4th index of the 0th internal array a1, returns value of 8
  t4 = MView1( 2, 1 ); // accesses 3rd index of the 1st internal array a2, returns value of 11

As the number of Layout dimensions increases, the index into the array-of-pointers can be moved to more distinct locations in the MultiView () access operator. Here is an example which compares the accesses of a 2-D layout on a normal RAJA::View with a RAJA::MultiView with the array-of-pointers index set to the 2nd position.

  RAJA::View< int, RAJA::Layout<2> > normalView(a1, 2, 2);

  t1 = normalView( 1, 1 ); // accesses 4th index of the a1 array, value = 8

  // MultiView with array-of-pointers index in 2nd position
  RAJA::MultiView< int, RAJA::Layout<2>, 2 > MView2(myarr, 2, 2);

  t2 = MView2( 1, 1, 0 ); // accesses the 4th index of the 0th internal array a1, returns value of 8 (same as normalView(1,1))
  t3 = MView2( 0, 0, 1 ); // accesses the 1st index of the 1st internal array a2, returns value of 9

Note

MultiView does not currently work with Layouts which use strongly typed indices. It has not been tested yet with atomic accesses.

RAJA Layouts

RAJA::Layout objects support other indexing patterns with different striding orders, offsets, and permutations. In addition to layouts created using the default Layout constructor, as shown above, RAJA provides other methods to generate layouts for different indexing patterns. We describe them here.

Permuted Layout

The RAJA::make_permuted_layout method creates a RAJA::Layout object with permuted index strides. That is, the indices with shortest to longest stride are permuted. For example,:

std::array< RAJA::idx_t, 3> perm {{1, 2, 0}};
RAJA::Layout<3> layout =
  RAJA::make_permuted_layout( {{5, 7, 11}}, perm );

creates a three-dimensional layout with index extents 5, 7, 11 with indices permuted so that the first index (index 0 - extent 5) has unit stride, the third index (index 2 - extent 11) has stride 5, and the second index (index 1 - extent 7) has stride 55 (= 5*11).

Note

If a permuted layout is created with the identity permutation (e.g., {0,1,2}, the layout is the same as if it were created by calling the Layout constructor directly with no permutation.

The first argument to RAJA::make_permuted_layout is a C++ array whose entries define the extent of each index dimension. The double braces are required to properly initialize the internal sub-object which holds the extents. The second argument is the striding permutation and similarly requires double braces.

In the next example, we create the same permuted layout as above, then create a RAJA::View with it in a way that tells the view which index has unit stride:

const int s0 = 5;  // extent of dimension 0
const int s1 = 7;  // extent of dimension 1
const int s2 = 11; // extent of dimension 2

double* B = new double[s0 * s1 * s2];

std::array< RAJA::idx_t, 3> perm {{1, 2, 0}};
RAJA::Layout<3> layout =
  RAJA::make_permuted_layout( {{s0, s1, s2}}, perm );

// The Layout template parameters are dimension, 'linear index' type used
// when converting an index triple into the corresponding pointer offset
// index, and the index with unit stride
RAJA::View<double, RAJA::Layout<3, int, 0> > Bview(B, layout);

// Equivalent to indexing as: B[i + j * s0 * s2 + k * s0]
Bview(i, j, k) = ...;

Note

Telling a view which index has unit stride makes the multi-dimensional index calculation more efficient by avoiding multiplication by ‘1’ when it is unnecessary. The layout permutation and unit-stride index specification must be consistent to prevent incorrect indexing.

Offset Layout

The RAJA::make_offset_layout method creates a RAJA::OffsetLayout object with offsets applied to the indices. For example,:

double* C = new double[11];

RAJA::Layout<1> layout = RAJA::make_offset_layout<1>( {{-5}}, {{5}} );

RAJA::View<double, RAJA::OffsetLayout<1> > Cview(C, layout);

creates a one-dimensional view with a layout that allows one to index into it using indices in \([-5, 5]\). In other words, one can use the loop:

for (int i = -5; i < 6; ++i) {
  CView(i) = ...;
}

to initialize the values of the array. Each ‘i’ loop index value is converted to an array offset index by subtracting the lower offset from it; i.e., in the loop, each ‘i’ value has ‘-5’ subtracted from it to properly access the array entry. That is, the sequence of indices generated by the for-loop:

-5 -4 -3 ... 5

will index into the data array as:

0 1 2 ... 10

The arguments to the RAJA::make_offset_layout method are C++ arrays that hold the start and end values of the indices. RAJA offset layouts support any number of dimensions; for example:

RAJA::OffsetLayout<2> layout =
   RAJA::make_offset_layout<2>({{-1, -5}}, {{2, 5}});

defines a two-dimensional layout that enables one to index into a view using indices \([-1, 2]\) in the first dimension and indices \([-5, 5]\) in the second dimension. As noted earlier, double braces are needed to properly initialize the internal data in the layout object.

Permuted Offset Layout

The RAJA::make_permuted_offset_layout method creates a RAJA::OffsetLayout object with permutations and offsets applied to the indices. For example,:

std::array< RAJA::idx_t, 2> perm {{1, 0}};
RAJA::OffsetLayout<2> layout =
  RAJA::make_permuted_offset_layout<2>( {{-1, -5}}, {{2, 5}}, perm );

Here, the two-dimensional index space is \([-1, 2] \times [-5, 5]\), the same as above. However, the index strides are permuted so that the first index (index 0) has unit stride and the second index (index 1) has stride 4, which is the extent of the first index (\([-1, 2]\)).

Note

It is important to note some facts about RAJA layout types. All layouts have a permutation. So a permuted layout and a “non-permuted” layout (i.e., default permutation) has the type RAJA::Layout. Any layout with an offset has the type RAJA::OffsetLayout. The RAJA::OffsetLayout type has a RAJA::Layout and offset data. This was an intentional design choice to avoid the overhead of offset computations in the RAJA::View data access operator when they are not needed.

Complete examples illustrating RAJA::Layouts and RAJA::Views may be found in the Stencil Computations (View Offsets) and Batched Matrix-Multiply (Permuted Layouts) tutorial sections.

Typed Layouts

RAJA provides typed variants of RAJA::Layout and RAJA::OffsetLayout that enable users to specify integral index types. Usage requires specifying types for the linear index and the multi-dimensional indicies. The following example creates two two-dimensional typed layouts where the linear index is of type TIL and the ‘(x, y)’ indices for accesingg the data have types TIX and TIY:

RAJA_INDEX_VALUE(TIX, "TIX");
RAJA_INDEX_VALUE(TIY, "TIY");
RAJA_INDEX_VALUE(TIL, "TIL");

RAJA::TypedLayout<TIL, RAJA::tuple<TIX,TIY>> layout(10, 10);
RAJA::TypedOffsetLayout<TIL, RAJA::tuple<TIX,TIY>> offLayout(10, 10);;

Note

Using the RAJA_INDEX_VALUE macro to create typed indices is helpful to prevent incorrect usage by detecting at compile when, for example, indices are passes to a view parenthesis operator in the wrong order.

Shifting Views

RAJA views include a shift method enabling users to generate a new view with offsets to the base view layout. The base view may be templated with either a standard layout or offset layout and their typed variants. The new view will use an offset layout or typed offset layout depending on whether the base view employed a typed layout. The example below illustrates shifting view indices by \(N\),

int N_r = 10;
int N_c = 15;
int *a_ptr = new int[N_r * N_c];

RAJA::View<int, RAJA::Layout<DIM>> A(a_ptr, N_r, N_c);
RAJA::View<int, RAJA::OffsetLayout<DIM>> Ashift = A.shift( {{N,N}} );

for(int y = N; y < N_c + N; ++y) {
  for(int x = N; x < N_r + N; ++x) {
    Ashift(x,y) = ...
  }
}

RAJA Index Mapping

RAJA::Layout objects can also be used to map multi-dimensional indices to linear indices (i.e., pointer offsets) and vice versa. This section describes basic Layout methods that are useful for converting between such indices. Here, we create a three-dimensional layout with dimension extents 5, 7, and 11 and illustrate mapping between a three-dimensional index space to a one-dimensional linear space:

// Create a 5 x 7 x 11 three-dimensional layout object
RAJA::Layout<3> layout(5, 7, 11);

// Map from 3-D index (2, 3, 1) to the linear index
// Note that there is no striding permutation, so the rightmost index is
// stride-1
int lin = layout(2, 3, 1); // lin = 188 (= 1 + 3 * 11 + 2 * 11 * 7)

// Map from linear index to 3-D index
int i, j, k;
layout.toIndices(lin, i, j, k); // i,j,k = {2, 3, 1}

RAJA layouts also support projections, where one or more dimension extent is zero. In this case, the linear index space is invariant for those index entries; thus, the ‘toIndicies(…)’ method will always return zero for each dimension with zero extent. For example:

// Create a layout with second dimension extent zero
RAJA::Layout<3> layout(3, 0, 5);

// The second (j) index is projected out
int lin1 = layout(0, 10, 0);   // lin1 = 0
int lin2 = layout(0, 5, 1);    // lin2 = 1

// The inverse mapping always produces zero for j
int i,j,k;
layout.toIndices(lin2, i, j, k); // i,j,k = {0, 0, 1}

RAJA Atomic Views

Any RAJA::View object can be made atomic so that any update to a data entry accessed via the view can only be performed one thread (CPU or GPU) at a time. For example, suppose you have an integer array of length N, whose element values are in the set {0, 1, 2, …, M-1}, where M < N. You want to build a histogram array of length M such that the i-th entry in the array is the number of occurrences of the value i in the original array. Here is one way to do this in parallel using OpenMP and a RAJA atomic view:

using EXEC_POL = RAJA::omp_parallel_for_exec;
using ATOMIC_POL = RAJA::omp_atomic

int* array = new double[N];
int* hist_dat = new double[M];

// initialize array entries to values in {0, 1, 2, ..., M-1}...
// initialize hist_dat to all zeros...

// Create a 1-dimensional view for histogram array
RAJA::View<int, RAJA::Layout<1> > hist_view(hist_dat, M);

// Create an atomic view into the histogram array using the view above
auto hist_atomic_view = RAJA::make_atomic_view<ATOMIC_POL>(hist_view);

RAJA::forall< EXEC_POL >(RAJA::RangeSegment(0, N), [=] (int i) {
  hist_atomic_view( array[i] ) += 1;
} );

Here, we create a one-dimensional view for the histogram data array. Then, we create an atomic view from that, which we use in the RAJA loop to compute the histogram entries. Since the view is atomic, only one OpenMP thread can write to each array entry at a time.

RAJA View/Layouts Bounds Checking

The RAJA CMake variable RAJA_ENABLE_BOUNDS_CHECK may be used to turn on/off runtime bounds checking for RAJA views. This may be a useful debugging aid for users. When attempting to use an index value that is out of bounds, RAJA will abort the program and print the index that is out of bounds and the value of the index and bounds for it. Since the bounds checking is a runtime operation, it incurs non-negligible overhead. When bounds checkoing is turned off (default case), there is no additional run time overhead incurred.